Doc holliday grave sight


doc holliday grave sight

The sight of the now notorious gunmen moseying into town led the mayor and his friends At times he'd get some news about Doc Holliday, who remained as. FANDOM: 3:10 To Yuma (2007) crossed w/ Tombstone (1993) CHARACTERS: William Evans and Doc Holliday (Logan Lerman and Val Kilmer). Three legendary characters of Tombstone who avoided spending eternity in Boothill were Doc Holliday, John Slaughter and Wyatt Earp. Holliday, probably.
doc holliday grave sight

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Tombstone, Arizona: "The Town Too Tough To Die"



From VOA Learning English, welcome to This is America. I’m Steve Ember.

The United States has thousands of "ghost towns."

[Wind and prairie sounds]

These are communities that once were successful but all the population moved to other places. Today on our program, we visit a town in the western state of Arizona that was saved from being a ghost town by a violent history.

[Gun Shots]

It is called Tombstone. Come along with us!
Silver miner Ed Schieffelin founded the town of Tombstone (Photo taken in 1880)

The town that is now Tombstone, Arizona was first a mining doc holliday grave sight. Silver miner Ed Schieffelin named the town. In 1877, Mr. Schieffelin was searching for silver in the Arizona territory. The area at the time was extremely dangerous. Apache Indians considered it to be their land and were all too ready to fight for it.

Ed Schieffelin used the army’s Camp Huachuca as a base for his search for silver. The soldiers there once asked him why he went out into Apache country every day. He answered: “To collect rocks.” Wells fargo atm withdrawal limit reset time soldier then told him: “You keep fooling around out there amongst them Apaches and the only rock you’ll find will be your tombstone!” A tombstone is the stone that marks a person’s grave in a large burial place.

One day not long after, Ed Schieffelin finally did discover valuable silver ore in the area. He decided to call his claim “Tombstone” because of the soldier’s warning. Soon, people heard about his silver discovery and arrived in the area. Others found more silver and established other mines. And they used the name Tombstone for the town they built nearby.

The area around Tombstone became well known for its silver mines. And more people came to the town. Some were settlers, storekeepers and miners. But others were looking for easy money. These were gamblers and thieves who drank too much alcohol and settled their disagreements with their guns.

[Gunfire]
Tombstone, Arizona as it looked in 1891
By the end of 1881, the town of Tombstone had a population of more than 5,000. It also had five local newspapers, at least two theaters, a courthouse, hotels and many local drinking places. And a gunfight had already taken place that would forever include Tombstone among the famous stories told about the American Wild West.


[Frankie Laine sings “Gunfight at OK Corral”]

OK Corral, OK Corral
There, the outlaw band
Make their final stand
OK Corral…
Oh, my dearest one, must I lay down my gun
And take the chance of losing you forever?
Duty calls, my back’s against the wall
Have you no kind words to say before I ride away?

It was the Gunfight at the OK Corral.
Kirk Douglas (Doc Holliday), Burt Lancaster (Wyatt Earp), John Hudson (Virgil Earp) and DeForest Kelley (Morgan Earp) in 1957 film 'Gunfight at the O.K. Corral"
The famous gunfight took place on October 26, 1881 between the town's top lawman, or marshal, and his deputies on one side and an outlaw group called the Cowboys on the other.

Stories from people who saw the fight led to newspaper reports, more stories, books, and later, movies and television shows. Not all these stories are exactly true. For example, the gunfight did not really take place in the OK Corral, but near doc holliday grave sight in a field just off a main street in town. Here is one generally accepted story.

A photograph of Virgil Earp

The town marshal in Tombstone was Virgil Earp. His brothers, Wyatt and Morgan, also lived in the town. In fact, Wyatt was deputy city marshal, and Morgan had been named as a special policeman. The Earps had a long-standing dispute with the Cowboys. They had tried to arrest group members in the past for crimes such as robbery and murder. Members of the group included Billy Claiborne, Ike Clanton, Billy Clanton, Tom McLaury and Frank McLaury.

[Corral sounds]

On the day of the famous fight, those men were gathered near the OK Corral, an enclosed area used to keep horses and other animals. They were armed, in violation of a town ban against carrying guns. They were also drinking alcohol and threatening to kill the Earp brothers.

Virgil Earp decided that it was his duty to disarm them. His two brothers and a friend, the gunfighter Doc Holliday, went along to help. The four walked down the street toward the corral. Virgil Earp told the cowboys to surrender their weapons. Billy Claiborne ran away. And the fight began.

[Gun battle]

It did not last long. Historians say 32 shots doc holliday grave sight fired in the space of about 23 seconds. No one really knows who fired first. But Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton died of gunshot wounds. Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp and Doc Holliday were wounded but survived. Only Ike Clanton and Wyatt Earp were not hurt.

A 1993 movie called “Tombstone” is one of the most recent attempts to tell this story. Listen to its recreation of the famous fight. Sam Elliott is Virgil, Kurt Russell is Wyatt and Stephen Lang plays Ike Clanton.

Virgil: “We’re here to disarm you. Throw up your hands.”
Voice: “Hold it. It’s not what I want.”
Wyatt: “Oh…my….God.”
Ike: “Please…please!!! Stop! No! No! Don’t shoot. I got no gun. Please. Don’t shoot me. I got no gun!”
Voice: “Ike…get to fightin’ or get away.”

The Earps and Doc Holliday were arrested for murder and tried in the courthouse. A judge decided they had acted within the law. Wyatt Earp spoke in his own defense at the trial. Here is part of the local newspaper’s report of what he said:
Portrait of Wyatt Earp
“…I believed then, and I believe now…that these men…had formed a conspiracy to murder my brothers Morgan and Virgil and Doc Holliday and myself. I believe I would have been legally and morally justified in shooting any of them on sight, but I did not do so or attempt to do so; I sought no advantage. When I went as deputy marshal to help disarm and arrest them, I went as part of my duty and under the direction of my brother, the marshal.

“I did not intend to fight unless it became necessary in self-defense and in the performance of official duty. When Billy Clanton and Frank McLaury drew their pistols I knew it was a fight for life, and I drew and fired in defense of my own life and the lives of my brothers and Doc Holliday.”

Some people still dispute this. They say the Earps and Doc Holliday did not fire in self-defense, but used the law as an excuse for murder. Experts say one of the reasons the gunfight is so interesting to many people is that no one knows who shot first or why. But we do know that the violence between the Earps and the Cowboys did not end at the OK Corral.

Two more attempts to kill the Earp brothers took place after the famous fight. The doc holliday grave sight injured Virgil; the second killed Morgan. Wyatt, Doc Holliday and others decided to hunt down and kill those members of the Cowboys they felt were responsible.

Today, the gunfight at the OK Corral brings visitors from all over the world to the small town of Tombstone. The latest information from the Tombstone Chamber of Commerce says the town has a doc holliday grave sight of almost 1,400 people. More than 50 thousand people stopped by the Tombstone Visitor Center in 2013. But the town welcomes thousands more each year.

At the OK Corral, actors still recreate the famous gunfight. But other gunfighters are remembered in Tombstone, as well. For years, a restaurant called “Six Gun City” recreated some of the other gunfights that took place in Tombstone. A fire destroyed the restaurant in 2010. But those gunfight reenactments continue.

[Gun battles]

For example, one recreation plays out the gunfight that killed Billy Claiborne, a member of the Cowboys gang, who ran from doc holliday grave sight OK Corral. He was killed by gunfighter Frank Leslie on the main street in Tombstone. In fact, a marker near the spot tells what happened. It says: "Buckskin Frank Leslie killed Billy Claiborne here on November 14, 1882.”
Boot Hill in Tombstone, Arizona contains the remains of gun fighters who lost their lives in the wild west town.
[Frankie Laine sings]

Boot Hill, Boot Hill,
So cold, so still
Wyatt Earp, they say, saved Doc Holliday
From old Boot Hill…

Gunfighters and others who died in those early Tombstone years are buried in the local graveyard, “Boot Hill.”

[Wind blows]

It was named “Boot Hill” because many of those buried there died violently, or, as the saying goes, “with their boots on.” Burials there ended after 1884, but the cemetery was restored in the 1930s. Only a few headstones survive, but small metal signs mark the graves. Many simply say “unknown,” but others include short sayings. One that has been repeated many times says: “Here Lies Lester Moore, Four Slugs from a 44, No Les, No More.”
Saloon girls on Allen Street, Tombstone, Arizona

People doc holliday grave sight all over the world visit Tombstone to experience a small part of the old American West. They want to imagine what it would have been like to live in a place like Tombstone. It does not really matter if all the old stories are true or not. The people of Tombstone are only too happy to welcome them to a place known as “the town too tough to die.”

Our program was written by Nancy Steinbach. Jim Tedder read the newspaper story, and I’m Steve Ember. Join us again next week for This is America from VOA Learning English


Tombstone, Arizona: "The Town Too Tough To Die"

Tombstone, Arizona: "The Town Too Tough To Die"

Источник: https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/tombstone-arizona-ok-corral-gunfight-wyatt-earp-virgil-earp-doc-holliday-boot-hill/1842251.html

Tombstone Cemetery

Tombstone CemeteryTombstone Cemetery - The Town's Graveyard

The Tombstone Cemetery is the actual cemetery for the town of Tombstone. The way it came into being is involved with the history of the Boothill Cemetery - the old Cemetery in the Tombstone city limits.

We moved to Tombstone in early in 2016. But we'd visited this historic town for years, because we love it here. We love old Western history. We found the Tombstone Cemetery quite a while back. We thought one day we'd roam it, and investigate it more. But it took moving to Tombstone  Arizona for us to finally do that.

The house we'd purchased in Tombstone is within the original Townsite boundary. But first built in 1946. Bill looked up research, trying to find its history. He discovered the first owner is buried in the Tombstone Cemetery. We'd planned to pay tribute at his gravesite once we got settled.

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We have a suggestion for you, on learning about this cemetery. Check on Boothill's history first, if you don't know that yet. It's quite interesting. It's also the basis of why this burial memorial ground got its start.

See Boothill's Story>


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Tombstone Cemetery Location

The local citizenry's burial grounds is to the West of town, but not far out. Allen Street is divided into East and West sections. The dividing point is the intersection of Sumner Street, which as it heads off and curves West, turns into Charleston Road. That's the road that people take when they go into Sierra Vista.

As Allen Street approaches town and points East, it's East Allen Street. After you head West on Allen Street, and pass the Sumner intersection, it becomes West Allen Street. Go that way to access the Tombstone Cemetery.

Go out West Allen Street, down and up the hill. You'll see the cemetery on the left. It's only about a half mile from Sumner.

Here's a map:

The "New" Cemetery

Tombstone Arizona's reputation was growing for its mining claims. As such, its population grew. With the influx of miners came the support population.

By 1880's end Tombstone had 5 hotels and 18 various types of alcohol establishments, most of which ran Gaming Rooms, from simple to elaborate. There was also a shooting gallery and a bowling alley. Two newspapers were regularly published. The Tombstone Social Club had been started and the Sixth Street Opera House (also known as the Fontana Dance Hall) was open. 

Importantly the Tombstone School District had begun. The population was around 2000.

Over the next year the population doubled. Tombstone elected their first official mayor, John Clum, under the newly formed city government on January 4, 1881. Recently designated Cochise County was pressured to give the city a charter. It was accomplished on February 21, 1881. The first city laws were enacted.

As Tombstone's population continued to grow, homes were going up throughout the area. This home building began closing in on the area of the Old Cemetery: Boothill. The town government decided it needed to address the issue.

The City fathers found property for a new graveyard on the town's Western outskirts. It would be the town's fourth designated site for burials.  Once the land was obtained, and a plan formulated, it was time to close the Old Cemetery.

And so it was done. The "Old Cemetery" was officially closed on May 31, 1884. (But not forever!!)

The City of Tombstone plotted out this New Cemetery on what was then called the Benson Road. Today, you'll find this road is the Western extremity of Allen Street. The Tombstone Cemetery encompasses acreage on the South side of the road.

Tombstone Cemetery EntranceEntrance to Tombstone Cemetery

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The gravesite of Tombstone's founder, Ed Schieffelin is a cone shaped monument built of round rocks on a desert hillside. Fenced in with a gate to enter.Schieffelin Monument is the Grave of Ed Schieffelin

West Allen Street is also the route to the monument for the person who is famous for Tombstone's establishment. The road to the Schieffelin Monument, which also holds his grave-site, turns off of West Allen Street, not too far beyond the town's Tombstone Cemetery.

If you'd like to visit that grave-site, for the founder of Tombstone, keep riding West on Monument Road, after turning off W. Allen. You'll pass the Tombstone Monument Ranch, then go up a hill, and you'll be at the grave site of Ed Schieffelin. Make a right to turn into the parking spot. You can't miss the Monument for his grave, straight ahead.

The first person buried in the New Cemetery was James Lamb, buried on June 30, 1884. The town also organized a transfer of some that were in Boothill to this new Tombstone Cemetery. That happened over the next number of years. These were the good days in Tombstone when the cemetery was being well maintained. Sadly, it's not quite the case even now.

Then the mines began to fail for assorted reasons. Economic pressures were felt in town. The grave-sites began to suffer from neglect. 450 bodies from the County Hospital were interred in an unmarked grave.

The Great Depression, population decreases, business closures all hit the town of Tombstone hard. During those times, funds for maintenance weren't much forthcoming. A lot of grave markers were lost.

If you walked the cemetery doc holliday grave sight 1947, at the end of WWII, it was a sad sight. There were as many unknown, unkempt graves as there were marked, cared-for sites. But it's unfortunate that in the older part of the Tombstone Cemetery it still has nearly that same feeling.

Unmarked Graves in Tombstone City CemeteryUnmarked Graves in Tombstone City Cemetery

Tombstone Cemetery Today

Tombstone Cemetery Parking LotParking for Tombstone Cemetery

In 1930, Boothill Cemetery had a major clean-up to attract tourists. This helped ensure the new town cemetery would also get its due for local funeral needs. But the Great Depression stifled funding for doc holliday grave sight of this new cemetery.

G.A.R. PlotG.A.R. Civil War Vet Plot

Attention revived after WWII, when more people moved to town and a new optimism arose. In the early 1950s interest in reviving the town's history awakened. People began to see the value in attracting tourism.

Town pride then helped keep their own citizen's cemetery in good repair. That lasted for some time.

Today it's officially named "Tombstone Cemetery." It's open daily, and has a large parking area. Take a stroll through, and you'll find some recognizable names.

For instance, famed photographer C.S. Fly is buried in Tombstone Cemetery. Also, the grandson of Cochise, Chief Nino Cochise, the son of Taza, is also said to be buried here. We say "said to be" - because there is some controversy about who that person interred in the grave really is. But there is a grave-site there named for him.

John Escapule GraveJohn & Emma Escapule Grave - Family Patriarch

Early Tombstone pioneer, John Escapule was buried here in 1926. He was a miner, rancher, and prime business owner in early Tombstone. Of French Basque heritage, he emigrated to the U.S. in 1876 when he was 20 years of age.1 

The Escapule family has an entire area for their plots. Many family members continue to live in Tombstone, and are involved with the city.

The Tombstone pioneering family, Ethel and James "Bert" Macia are also interred here. A well respected family since the founding, and for many years thereafter. If you research their family members, you'll find they are the historical owners of the same historical building which now houses the Rose Tree Museum. It's home to the largest Rose tree nathan for you claw of shame the world! When they owned it, they named it The Rose Tree Inn. Their descendants carried its legacy through history for many years. So that today it is worth a visit! 

Macia Grave SiteMacia Head Stone
A Tombstone Cemetery ViewA View Within the Cemetery

There is a newer section to the cemetery. It's located to the West of the older areas. A new pavilion was built there, and dedicated in September of 2017. This section does look somewhat nicer than the older section. However, people still have reserved gravesites in the older section. So although the newer area is being used more, the older sites are still used and visited.

We have hope the City will show some concern for more maintenance in the Tombstone Cemetery that is available for its citizens. The Town needs to take some pride again in this area, where local people can come to respect their ancestors, and remember and honor their loved ones who have moved along into infinity.

The Pavilion was a start. But more could really be done. When you roam the cemeteries of other cities, you can see the maintenance and care provided. The Tombstone City mayor could usaa home insurance tree removal the lead in this. Council members should bring it to the attention of the mayor and the public in their monthly government meetings.

It would certainly provide a show of love of community to those who visit the Tombstone Cemetery. Others visit to see the historic people interred there. Some come who have an interest in unique tombstones. Many have an interest in the preservation and good maintenance of the legacies of those of the past, including the memorials of their life at their burial sites.



References

1 Bailey, L.R. (2004). Too tough to die: The rise, fall and resurrection of a silver camp; 1878 to 1990. Tucson AZ: Westernlore Press. [Prime reference for all historical information on this page.]


Источник: https://www.tombstonetraveltips.com/tombstone-cemetery.html

Tombstone, Arizona: 'The Town Too Tough to Die'

www.manythings.org/voa/usa

Download MP3   (Right-click or option-click the link.)

Welcome to THIS IS AMERICA in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

And I'm Barbara Klein. The United States has thousands of ghost towns. These are communities that once were successful but all the population moved to other places. Today on our program, we visit a town in the western state of Arizona that was saved from being a ghost town by a violent history. It is called Tombstone.

The town that is amazon prime benefits Tombstone, Arizona was first a mining camp. Silver miner Ed Schieffelin named the town. In eighteen seventy-seven, Mr. Schieffelin was searching for silver in the Arizona territory. The area at the time was extremely dangerous. Apache Indians considered it to be their land and were all too ready to fight for it.

Ed Schieffelin used the army’s Camp Huachuca as a base for his search for silver. The soldiers there once asked him why he went out into Apache country every day. He answered: "To collect rocks." One soldier then told him: "You keep fooling around out there amongst them Apaches and the only rock you’ll find will be your tombstone!" A tombstone is the stone that marks a person’s grave in a large burial place.

One day not long after, Ed Schieffelin finally did cafe near me thats open valuable silver ore in the area. He decided to call his claim "Tombstone" because of the soldier’s warning. Soon, people heard about his silver discovery and arrived in the area. Others found more silver and established other mines. And they used the name Tombstone for the town they built nearby.

The area around Tombstone became well known for its silver mines. And ferry from edmonds to kingston cost people came to the town. Some were settlers, storekeepers and miners. But others were looking for easy money. These were gamblers and thieves who drank too much alcohol and settled their disagreements with their guns.

By the end of eighteen eighty-one, the town of Tombstone had a population of more than five thousand. It also had five local newspapers, at least two theaters, a courthouse, hotels and many local drinking places. And a gunfight had already taken place that would forever include Tombstone among the famous stories told about the American Wild West.

(MUSIC)

That was called "The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral."

The famous gunfight hotels near sap center san jose place on October twenty-sixth, eighteen eighty-one between the town's top lawman, or marshal, and his deputies on one side and an outlaw group called the Cowboys on the other.

Stories from people who saw the fight led to newspaper reports, more stories, books and later movies and television shows. Not all these stories are exactly true. For example, how to get money off temporary green dot card gunfight did not really take place in the O.K. Corral, but near it in a field just off a main street in town. Here is one generally accepted story.

The town marshal in Tombstone was Virgil Earp. His brothers, Wyatt and Morgan, also lived in the town. In fact, Wyatt was deputy city marshal, and Morgan had been named a special policeman. The Earps had a long-standing dispute with the Cowboys. They had tried to arrest group members in the past for crimes such as robbery and murder. Members of the group included Billy Claiborne, Ike Clanton, Billy Centerpoint energy pay my bill mn, Tom McLaury and Frank McLaury.

On the day of the famous fight, those men were gathered near the O.K. Corral, an enclosed area used to keep horses and other animals. They were armed, in violation of a town ban against carrying guns. They were also drinking alcohol and threatening to kill the Earp brothers.

Virgil Earp decided that it was his duty to disarm them. His two brothers and a friend, the gunfighter Doc Holliday, went along to help. The four walked down the street toward the corral. Virgil Earp told the cowboys to surrender their weapons. Billy Claiborne ran away. And the fight began.

It did not last long. Historians say thirty-two shots were fired in the space of about twenty-three seconds. No one really knows who fired first. But Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton died of gunshot wounds. Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp and Doc Holliday were wounded but survived. Only Ike Clanton and Wyatt Earp were not hurt.

A nineteen ninety-three movie called "Tombstone" is one of the most recent attempts to tell this story. Listen to its recreation of the famous fight. Sam Elliott is Virgil, Kurt Russell is Wyatt and Stephen Lang plays Ike Clanton.

Virgil: northfield bank high yield savings account here to disarm you. Throw up your hands."
Virgil: "Hold it. It’s not what I want."
Wyatt: "Oh . my . God."
Ike: "Please . please! Stop! No! No! Don’t shoot. I got no gun. Please. Don’t shoot me. I got no gun!"
Wyatt: "Ike … get to fightin’ or get away."

The Earps and Doc Holliday were arrested for murder and tried in the courthouse. A judge decided they had acted within the law. Wyatt Earp spoke in his own defense at the trial. Here is part of the local newspaper’s report of what he said:

READER:

"I believed then, and I believe now . that these men … had formed a conspiracy to murder my brothers Morgan and Virgil and Doc Holliday and myself. I believe I would have been legally and morally justified in shooting any of them on sight, but I did not do so or attempt to do so; I sought no advantage. When I went as deputy marshal to help disarm and arrest them, I went as part of my duty and under the direction of my brother, the marshal.

"I did not intend to fight unless it became necessary in self-defense and in the performance of official duty. When Billy Clanton and Frank McLaury drew their pistols I knew it was a fight fort smith weather history life, and I drew and fired in defense of my own life and the lives of my brothers and Doc Holliday."

Some people still dispute this. They say the Earps and Doc Holliday did not fire in self-defense, but used the law as an excuse for murder. Experts say one of the reasons the gunfight is so interesting to many people is that no one knows who shot first or why. But we do know that the violence between the Earps and the Cowboys did not end at the O.K. Corral.

Two more attempts to kill the Earp brothers took place after the famous fight. The first injured Virgil; the second killed Morgan. Wyatt, Doc Holliday and others decided to hunt down and kill those members of the Cowboys they felt were responsible.

Today, the gunfight at the O.K. Corral brings visitors from all over the world to the small town of Tombstone. The latest information from the Tombstone Chamber of Commerce says the town has a population of almost one thousand eight hundred people. But it welcomes doc holliday grave sight one hundred thousand and four hundred thousand visitors each year.

Every day at the O.K. Corral, actors recreate the famous gunfight. But other gunfighters are remembered in Tombstone, too. An outdoor restaurant called "Six Gun City" recreates some of the other real gunfights that took place in Tombstone.

VOICE ONE (CONT):

For example, one recreation plays out the gunfight that killed Billy Claiborne, a member of the Cowboys gang who ran from the O.K. Corral. He was killed by gunfighter Frank Leslie on the main street in Tombstone. In fact, a marker near the spot tells what happened. It says: Buckskin Frank Leslie killed Billy Claiborne here on November fourteenth, eighteen-eighty-two.

Gunfighters and others who died in those early Tombstone years are buried in the local graveyard, Boot Hill. It was named Boot Hill because many of those buried there died violently, or, as the saying goes, "with their boots on."

Burials there ended after eighteen eighty-four, but the cemetery was restored in the nineteen thirties. Only a few headstones survive, but small metal signs mark the graves. Many simply say "unknown," but others include short sayings. One that has been repeated many times says: Here Lies Lester Moore, Four Slugs from a Forty-four, No Les, No More.

People from all over the world visit Tombstone to experience a small part of the old American West. They want to imagine what it would have been like to live in a place like Tombstone. It does not really matter if all the old stories are true or not. The people of Tombstone are only too happy to welcome them to a place known as "the town too tough to die."

Our program was written by Nancy Steinbach and produced by Caty Weaver. Doug Johnson was our reader. I'm Barbara Klein.

And I'm Bob Doughty. Join us again next week for THIS IS AMERICA in VOA Special English.

www.manythings.org/voa/usa
Источник: http://www.manythings.org/voa/usa/402.html

Tombstone: the City Too Hard to Die

Tucson to Tombstone: through Arizona below

We are not big fans of theme parks. We were afraid to find little more than one in Tombstone. In any case, through the ages, Tombstone has always inspired fear. Aware of its epic and fascinating Western past, we give it the benefit of the doubt and leave Tucson pointed that way.

Less than half an hour from the border with the Mexico, soon we have to stop at a police checkpoint. The officers find the context in which they found us strange: a couple with Portuguese passports – she with more Mexican than Portuguese features – aboard an old and classic Buick Le Saber, not rented, with California license plate and signs of having recently traveled many kilometers in a way semi-domicile.

Even Americans, the agents themselves have obvious Mexican genetics and looks. They check ownership of the car and inquire about the relationship we had with the owner. After confirming that the Buick was not on the list of stolen vehicles and explaining to them that the owner was an uncle of ours, they tell us to move on. They say goodbye with warm smiles.

We passed Sonoita, Whetstone and Fairbank. An hour and a half of driving along the edge of the Sonoran Desert later, we enter a surreal colonnaded redoubt.

Tombstone's Western Ways

Stages cross the main street of the city, delimited by two rows of ground-floor wooden buildings, extending to a long communal walkway formed by successive porches. A multitude of commercial establishments occupy the shaded ground floors.

Stagecoach runs along E. Allen Street, the main thoroughfare of Tombstone.

Craft and souvenir shops, bars, breweries and restaurants but also saloons and the theater are identified by signs that reinforce the peculiarity of the place: “Politicians wipe their shit off their boots before they go inside."Or"Prohibited Weapons. The cemetery is already full."

The various characters from the West that we come across are so trustworthy that, more than leaving us perplexed, doc holliday grave sight convince us that we have retreated to the bellicose closing of the XNUMXth century of these inhospitable and marginal places.

Even at the end of a so-called winter, the desert heat tightens. We drank cold beers in the shade of one of the porches, in the company of what appeared to be the village's bearded gravedigger. Unexpectedly, rival groups of gunmen charge from opposite ends of E. Ellen Street until they come face to face, in front of a store identified as “Outlaw Outfitter".

A crowd of onlookers gathers on both sides of the road and follows the course of the duel. On that occasion, as in all the more recent ones, the shooting and the killings followed a theatrical script, but since its troubled gestation, for decades to come, Tombstone was the scene of countless of these confrontations, as real as they were deadly.

Gunmen rush down Tombstone's main street ready for conflict.

How Ed Schieffelin's Luck Originated the City

Tombstone was founded by Ed Schieffelin in 1879, 15 years after the end of the American Civil War. Schieffelin was a scout in the army of the USA parked at Camp Huachuca. I used to roam the desert vastness around in search of valuable ores. By that time, three other superintendents had been killed by Indians.

When a colleague and friend found out about the places that Schieffelin had started to prospect, he said: “The only stone you'll find around these parts will be your own tombstone” or, in another version: “You'd better take your coffin with you; you'll only find your tombstone around there, nothing else” (Tombstone, in English).

Schieffelin ignored him. In 1877, he found silver samples in a plate called Goose Flats. It took months to ascertain its origin. When he got it, he estimated that the lode would be 15m long by 30cm wide. He hurried to register the land how do i find out if my realtor is licensed of “Tombstone".

Even far from other cities, propelled by the 40 to 85 million dollars of silver that made it the largest mining district in Arizona, the place has become one of the last mining hubs in the American West.

Just two years later, Tombstone had 110 saloons, a bowling hall, 14 games, several dance halls, an ice house and an ice cream parlor, a school, two benches, a church and several brothels. These establishments and are any banks open on christmas eve were erected on a series of mines deepened by the greed of newly arrived miners.

Colorful and lively interior of the Big Nose Kate saloon.

Due to hasty, neglectful construction and non-existent structural fire precautions, Tombstone was devastated by two major fires in consecutive years. The first, in 1881, began when a lit cigarette burned a whiskey barrel in one of the saloons. It devastated sixty-six businesses, the entire eastern section of the city's commercial area.

Saloons, doc holliday grave sight and the like: reliving the past in Tombstone

They may not be the 100% original, but they should live up to the status achieved by the city, in 1961, of National Historic Landmark District. As such, the authorities and the inhabitants of Tombstone (today circa 1300) strive to preserve several of its iconic buildings.

These were the cases of the Birdcage Theatre, the Saloon and the Schiefflin mine, the Longhorn restaurant, the Cochise district court, the City Hall, the Big Nose Kate saloon and, for events that we are yet to discuss, the most famous of all remaining together OK Corral, this despite the second fire only leaving the raised sign intact.

The sun was already descending from its apex but the temperature hovered well above 30º. Accordingly, visitors stayed inside establishments, determined to avoid the turret that was felt. We took refuge in the Big Nose Kate saloon.

There, we are served by two young ladies of pleasure extras, in short black satin dresses, with high breasts and corsets to match the voluptuous lacy legs. And, right next door, a middle-aged visitor crawls into a coffin. Photographs are taken holding a small sign that reads “hooker” with a noose around his neck, which a sheriff helps to hold.

Maids of the Big Nose Kate saloon, one of capital one quicksilver credit score required city's historic establishments

We didn't know what to think about the fact that most of the serious customers wear snake clothes, have a posture like a snake, and most likely are. We were in the near-Mexican confines of Arizona, one of the American states most faithful to the nation's conservative, gunslinging past. In Tombstone, the threshold between past and present, between fiction and reality, was increasingly blurred.

The Reenacted Slaughter of OK Corral

To confirm it, 15:30 pm arrived, the time of the last re-enactment of the day of OK Corral's duel. We moved to the small bench set up facing the gaudy scenery and let the action unfold. Every year, more than 400.000 outsiders watch this neat little theatre.

Moment of the re-enactment of the OK Corral duel in a wooden setting that emulates the place of confrontation.

If we take into account the cinematographic and television re-enactments spread all over the world, the number of spectators and those familiar with the events that precipitated from March 15, 1881 to April 15, 1882 increases exponentially.

The confrontations between good and evil, law and outlaws, had such bloodthirsty and moving endings that they entered like piercing bullets in the profuse Western historical imagination of the USA.

Democrats, Republicans and the Outlaw Cowboys

In the wake of the American Civil War, shrouded in greed, resentment and treachery, Tombstone had seen various tensions escalate from his early days. Most of its cobols, semi-exiled earth men, were “Democrats” from the South, especially from Texas, attached to the Confederate and defeated side of the conflict that had just begun to heal.

Sol gilds one of Tombstone's Western architectural lines.

Mine and business owners, miners, inhabitants and law enforcement officers were almost all Republicans. More ideologically receptive and resourceful capitalists from the northern states.

From 1880 onwards, the Mexican government severely taxed US imports of alcohol, cattle and tobacco. The smuggling of these goods has intensified. It spread the criminal action of outlaw gangs who called themselves “Cowboys”.

So much so that, in Cochise County to which Tombstone belonged, it was considered insulting to use the term to refer to men who handled cattle. Instead, they should be called “Stake".

The Earps vs Pack McLaury, Clanton and Claiborne

Part of this picture, on the night of March 15, 1881, three cobols tried to steal a stagecoach carrying $26.000 in bar silver. They killed their popular driver and another passenger. Sheriff Virgil Earp and his brothers and temporary deputies Wyatt and Morgan Earp set out on the criminals' trail.

The persecution turned out to involve a familiar and rival clan of Cobols who despised the Earp brothers' ancestry in Tombstone and the legal and moral counterpower they represented. It triggered a sequence of ambushes and counter-ambushes, murders and revenge, which, in turn, led to the confrontation of OK Corral.

Then, in thirty seconds, the Earp brothers, and their physical friend Doc Holliday, shot down Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury, and Billy Clanton. Even though they were fatally wounded, the latter two still managed to fight back and wounded Virgil, Morgan and Doc. Ike Clanton and Billy Claiborne fled.

The Tombstone Law Enforcement Court formed by the Earp brothers and their friend Doc Holliday, featured here in the re-enactment of the OK Corral duel held in the city.

Wyatt, an Earp Doomed to Revenge

Despite the impact and notoriety of this particular duel, the conflict would continue. The new Sheriff Beham who had watched the duel detained the Earps and Holliday, who were accused of murder. A month later, after Tombstone legal authorities ruled that the killings had been justified, he released them.

Meanwhile, Virgil Earp was trapped, shot by wildebeests hiding in a street in Tombstone. After another three months, his brother Morgan succumbed to a bullet that hit his spine while playing pool. In both cases, the responsible gunmen escaped justice.

Frustrated by the growing cowardice and inefficiency of the city's Law, Wyatt, the surviving Earp, organized a squadron on horseback that chased and slaughtered the four wildebeests who had fired at the brothers. This ultimate chase went down in history as Earp Vendetta Ride.

One how the west was won dvd the duel actors triggers the voiceover that explains the OK Corral duel event.

The Hollywood Versions of Tombstone

Since 1939, Hollywood has reinforced Tombstone's media firepower. “Frontier Marshall”, “Sheriff of Tombstone","My Darling Clementine” by John Ford with Henry Fonda, “Gunfight at the OK Corral","hour of the gun","Tombstone"And"Wyatt Earp”, these feature films and several other television works addressed the bloody sequel.

Kevin Costner was expected to star in "Tombstone” by George P. Cosmatos, with Kurt Russell and Val Kilmer, but he was displeased by screenwriter Kevin Jarre's refusal to give more weight to Wyatt Earp's character. Kostner abandoned that stage. He teamed up with Laurence Kasdan (the director of the epic “Silverado” from 1985) in the rival project “Wyatt Earp".

According to Kurt Russell, he also did everything to prevent the big Hollywood studios from distributing “Tombstone”. However, the Buena Vistas boycotted his boycott. The two films premiered six months apart in their own commercial duel.

As for Tombstone village, the censuses of USA they showed that, once silver mining had ended, the population had dropped from 1900 inhabitants in 1890 to less than 700 in 1900.

As of October 26, 1881, Billy Clayton, Tom McLaury and Frank McClaury who, as we have witnessed, have their headstones just below the OK Corral, among cacti and under a blanket of pebbles, no longer contribute to local demography.

Tombstones and crude graves of rival assassins of the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday, shot down during the OK Corral duel.

Tombstone, however, remained the county seat of Cochise county until 1929 and saved itself from becoming a ghost town. Ten years later, its media coverage via Hollywood began to encourage the intense tourism that now sees it. Nearly 140 years after its founding, the tormented Tombstone endures.

More tourist information about Tombstone on the website Visit Arizona.

Источник: https://www.got2globe.com/en/Editorial/tombstone-city-history-western-arizona-usa/

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Hartford Police say they've arrested three teenagers accused of toppling more than 60 tombstones at a cemetery.

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Old tombstone found in house being demolished.

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The tombstone for the Rev.

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Man Has Dead Wife's Vagina Carved on Tombstone.

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A great deal of Hudson County history is on display in the countless tombstones that mark the final resting places of earlier generations.

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The one thing that Grand Haven resident Adrian Rodriguez Sr. Wishes for now never had a place under the family's Christmas tree navy federal credit union certificate of deposit rates a tombstone for his 13-year-old son's grave.

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The Tri-Top tombstone from Lang Technovation enables the use of three devices to maximize efficiency and minimize shutdown times for four- and five-axis machines.

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Lightweight Tombstone Suitable for Smaller CNCs.

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Maybe the people feel no one cares how things look, for nothing has been done with the tombstones that were destroyed in the Stone Church Cemetery.

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Local residents fulfill their sartorial fantasies on Tombstone 's dusty streets (Daniel Borris).

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A year later, Tombstone 's marshal was named Virgil Earp, who, with his younger brothers, Wyatt and Morgan, and a gambler named Doc Holliday, vanquished the Clanton and McLaury boys in a gunfight at the O.K.

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Before the release of Windows Server 2003, no method existed for bringing tombstones back to life.

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When it comes to personalized tombstonesSt Paul's Oakland Cemetery has one of the best displays around.

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***
Источник: http://www.finedictionary.com/tombstone.html

Doc holliday grave sight -

December 2004

Against the Law Reviews? Readers Respond to Posner
Wyatt Earp Takes the Stand By John Swansburg
Fireside Chat of the Century By Iain Currie
Against the Law Reviews By Richard A. Posner
Elsewhere


Wyatt Earp Takes the Stand


Was the quintessential American lawman guilty of manslaughter for his role in the gunfight at the O.K. Corral?


By John Swansburg


ONE OF THE MOST PECULIAR GAMES in the history of poker was convened on the evening of October 25, 1881. The players were Johnny Behan, Ike Clanton, Tom McLaury, John Holliday, and Morgan, Virgil, and Wyatt Earp—men who would face off the next morning in the most famous gunfight in the history of the West. By the evening of the 25th, the suspicions, rivalries, and grudges that would spark the next day's violence at the O.K. Corral were already well established. It seems that was no reason, however, that the men couldn't sit down to a game of cards.

The hands were dealt at the Occidental Saloon in Tombstone, a booming mining town not far from the Mexican border in what was then the Arizona Territory. Like many frontier outposts, Tombstone was a town divided. On one side was the business establishment, invested in stability and law enforcement. These men tended to vote Republican and read the Tombstone Epitaph.

On the other side were the men who'd come to town with dreams of making quick money, leaving behind a dark past, or both. These men tended to be distrustful, if not plain disrespectful, of the law, they usually supported Democrats, and they had a newspaper of their own, the Tombstone Nugget.

Both sides of Tombstone were represented at the Occidental's poker table. Ike Clanton and Tom McLaury were Cowboys, a term describing not benign drovers but a loosely federated band of cattle rustlers, many of them Confederate veterans. Johnny Behan was the Democratic county sheriff, but he was more a politician than a policeman and was well disposed toward the Cowboys, who voted Democrat and were known to encourage others to do the same.

Across the table from Behan and the Cowboys was a trio of Republicans, the Earp brothers. Virgil, the eldest, was serving as a deputy U.S. marshal and Morgan had served under him. Wyatt had been a peace officer in Wichita and Dodge City, two of the West's roughest cow towns, where he'd earned a reputation as a staunch lawman. In the aftermath of the gunfight the next day, he would become a symbol of the American brand of law and order, morally upstanding, yet brutally effective when necessary.

There is no record of who prevailed in the poker game that night, but the smart money is on the final player at the table, John "Doc" Holliday. Raised a Southern gentleman on a Georgia plantation, Holliday attended a dentistry program in Philadelphia and made his name in the West as a gambler and a killer. Evidence of murder never seemed to catch up with him, however, and his allegiance in Tombstone was to the lawman Wyatt Earp, with whom he had forged an unlikely friendship back in Dodge City. (Holliday is said to have saved Earp's life, but there is no more evidence of this than of the many killings attached to his name.)

After the last player folded and the game broke up, whatever civility the two sides had mustered quickly evaporated. The Earps and the Cowboys differed over a lot more than their choice of newspaper, and now the enmity that had been simmering for months threatened to boil over. In January 1881, Behan and Wyatt had faced off in an election for county sheriff. Behan promised his rival that he would appoint him deputy if Wyatt dropped out of the race, but then reneged on his half of the bargain—perhaps to get back at Wyatt for stealing the affections of a woman to whom he had proposed. Ike Clanton, meanwhile, had recently quarreled with Wyatt over a plan the latter had hatched to bring some stagecoach robbers to justice. Wyatt was sore at Ike's little brother Billy for trying to steal his horse. Tom McLaury was angry that Virgil Earp had shown up at his ranch looking for some stolen Army mules. Virgil was none too pleased with McLaury when he found them there.

After leaving the Occidental, Ike Clanton spent the morning hours in a liquor-fueled rage, walking about town waving a Winchester rifle and telling anyone who would listen that he intended to kill Doc Holliday and the Earp brothers. That behavior soon earned him a visit from Virgil and Morgan, who promptly pistol-whipped him. (Frontier lawmen much preferred "buffaloing" a man to shooting him.) Tom McLaury would suffer the same fate a few hours later, at the hands of Wyatt. Soon after, Clanton and McLaury made their way to the O.K. Corral, where they were joined by their respective brothers, Billy and Frank. There they continued making threats, which traveled down the Tombstone streets to Hafford's Corner Saloon, where the Earp brothers had gathered.

Standing in the O.K. Corral, the Cowboys weren't breaking any laws. But when they crossed into the adjacent lot where the (misnamed) gunfight would actually take place, the Cowboys violated a town ordinance that prohibited the carrying of firearms on the city streets. It was then that Virgil Earp decided it was his duty to disarm the Cowboys, after Behan made a half-hearted and unsuccessful attempt to disarm them himself. With his brothers and Doc Holliday acting as his deputies, Virgil and his posse began their storied walk to the O.K. Corral.

According to witnesses, Virgil informed the Cowboys that he'd come to take their guns, and he ordered them to put up their hands. What happened next is unclear. Earp sympathizers believe Billy Clanton and Frank McLaury cocked and started to draw their pistols. Earp detractors believe the Earp brothers, or more likely Holliday, shot first, with some even contending that they fired on men who were raising their arms in surrender. Whoever drew first, a volley of gunfire rang out.

Unlike the poker game, which had lasted all night, the gunfight took less than 30 seconds. Billy Clanton and Tom and Frank McLaury were fatally shot. Holliday and Virgil and Morgan Earp were wounded. Ike Clanton fled. Only Wyatt Earp was left standing, unscathed. "The 26th of October, 1881, will always be marked as one of the crimson days in the annals of Tombstone," the Nuggetwrote the next day, "a day when blood flowed as water, and human life was held as a shuttlecock."

In the movies, that is typically that. The gunfight is the unfortunate (maybe) but necessary (clearly) denouement to the conflict between the Earps and the Cowboys frontier justice served. But even in the Old West, and even when lawmen were the shooters, killings had consequences. Five days later, on October 31, Ike Clanton pressed first-degree murder charges against the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday. If you were to watch every Wyatt Earp movie from Law & Order(1932) to Wyatt Earp (1994), you'd see a lot of riding off into the sunset led by the legendary Wyatt, the lawman who tamed the West. What you wouldn't find is a scene depicting what actually happened in the aftermath of the gun battle: Wyatt hauled to a cell in Johnny Behan's county jail, where he sat awaiting trial for a capital offense.

Even the films that don't show Earp as a paragon of law enforcement—think Burt Lancaster in Gunfight at the O.K. Corral(1957)—stop short of imagining him as a murderer. Tombstone, the 1993 film based on history as well as myth, portrays Earp as an opportunist more interested in money than marshaling. But the Cowboys are still the bad guys, and there's little to suggest that the shoot-out was anything but a fair fight.

Yet Earp not only went on trial for the shootings, he easily could have been convicted. In his new book Murder in Tombstone, a careful study of the legal proceedings that followed the gunfight, Northwestern Law School professor Steven Lubet argues that the prosecution held the better hand. But they didn't play it. "The prosecutors probably had a winning case," Lubet writes, "but it was not the one they ended up presenting." Lubet's book shows how badly the prosecution played its cards and how well the defense played theirs. Given the peculiarities of justice in the Arizona Territory, the winner of the trial would be the side whose counsel best sized up the players and best exploited the house rules. According to Lubet, that lawyer was Tom Fitch, counsel for the Earps. Along with the prosecution's miscues, Fitch's maneuverings saved Wyatt Earp and his brethren from being hanged—and helped give birth to a legend that otherwise might have died on the gallows with its would-be hero.

THE TRIAL OF WYATT EARP wasn't really a trial at all. It was a preliminary hearing before a justice of the peace named Wells Spicer. The purpose of the hearing was to determine whether a crime had been committed and whether there was "sufficient cause" to believe the four defendants were the ones who committed it. It seemed assured that they would be forced to stand trial. With Sheriff Behan willing to testify that the Earps and Holliday had fired on men who were trying to surrender, "the hearing before Wells Spicer could well have been a quick and tidy matter," Lubet writes. But the hearing in Spicer's court proved to be anything but. Instead, the preliminary hearing turned into the longest in Arizona history, with 30 witnesses testifying in as many days. Both sides decided that it was in their interest not to hold anything back. "As befit a bunch of Arizona gamblers," Lubet observes, "everyone decided to go for broke."

The prosecution, led by Tombstone's chief prosecutor Lyttleton Price, adopted a strategy of pinning Holliday as the first shooter, hoping in turn to indict Virgil Earp for allowing the notorious gambler to join his posse. The Earps all had law enforcement on their résumés, and there was no shortage of character witnesses willing to attest to their integrity. The defense submitted a petition signed by 62 citizens from Dodge City and Wichita attesting that Wyatt Earp "was ever vigilant in the discharge of his duties, and while kind and courteous to all, he was brave, unflinching, and on all occasions proved himself the right man in the right place." No former dental patients stood up to attest to Doc Holliday's bedside manner—and he had his reputation as a killer to reckon with. The prosecutors' theory was that Holliday started the shooting with the nickel-plated pistol he is said to have favored because it was small enough to conceal in his vest during a poker game.

This theory has occupied scholars for over a hundred years, offering a glimpse into the depth and fractiousness of the scholarship devoted to the Tombstone legend. There seem to be as many theories about how Doc Holliday may or may not have touched off the fracas as there are historians who have delved into the subject. It's hard to read the work of, say, Paula Mitchell Marks, author of And Die in the West—The Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight, without smiling at the notion of her facing off against other historians over whether Doc Holliday might have started the fight with his signature pistol and then switched to the shotgun he was seen carrying to the fight mid-melee. That's Marks's stand. Others have suggested that Holliday held on to the pistol while firing the shotgun one-handed. Given a shotgun's kick, that seems unlikely, particularly since Holliday moved to the West in part to nurse his tuberculosis.

Lubet doesn't wade too deeply into these debates, preferring to remain within his bailiwick, the court of law. That doesn't exempt him from having an opinion about how the events in Tombstone unfolded, of course. He clearly doesn't put much stock in the revisionist theory offered by Ike Clanton's grandson, among others, which argues that the Cowboys were defending Tombstone from the encroachments of the federal government personified by the Earps. But Lubet isn't an Earp partisan, either.

If Lubet has a cause, it's the counsel for the defense. In the author's retelling, Tom Fitch takes a place in the pantheon of Tombstone's heroes. Wily legal strategist and champion cross-examiner may sound like odd attributes for a Western hero, even in a story that stars a dentist-turned-shootist. But Lubet, who is an expert in trial advocacy, makes a surprisingly compelling argument for the importance of Fitch's contribution. The book is more impressive still for its readability: Lubet essentially presents a case study in advocacy, but his storytelling skills and his obvious affection for the subject keeps his nuanced consideration of Fitch's legal craftsmanship from feeling arcane.

Lubet explores Fitch's work at the level of strategy and of tactics, with particular attention given to the latter. He believes that Fitch's skill as a cross-examiner may have made the difference in the case, and he reads those portions of the transcript with special attention. Lubet argues that Fitch had a knack for using a witness's own words against him, luring one after another into assertions they couldn't substantiate and so undermining the authority of their entire testimony.

The cross-examination of Billy Claiborne offers a good example. A friend of the Clantons and McLaurys, Claiborne witnessed the gunfight and testified that he saw Morgan Earp shoot Billy Clanton at point-blank range. On cross, Fitch asked Claiborne if he saw any powder burns on Clanton's corpse. The question put Claiborne in a pickle. If the witness said there were no powder marks, he would be contradicting his own claim that Morgan had fired at close range. If he said there werepowder burns, he'd be running afoul of the coroner, who'd testified there were none. Cornered, Claiborne said lamely that he couldn't remember.

NOT ALL OF THE EXAMPLES LUBET OFFERS UP demonstrate Fitch's aptitude as clearly and convincingly. Occasionally, the author stretches to establish his hero's lawyerly chops, reading the lines of the trial transcript too closely, and reading between the lines too loosely. Yet Lubet also takes note of factors outside of Fitch's control that contributed to his success, giving space to serendipity as well as skill.

Tellingly, the career paths of Fitch and Spicer had crossed before. The judge had worked as a lawyer in Utah before coming to Tombstone, taking part in what was probably the most closely followed trial of the 19th century, the prosecution of John D. Lee for his role in the Mountain Meadows massacre. Lee was the only person brought to trial for the attack, in which a band of Mormons dressed as Paiute Indians ambushed a wagon train heading to California and killed more than a hundred innocents.

Spicer served as one of Lee's lawyers and, Lubet contends, the experience made a lasting impression on him. It's now widely accepted, at least outside the Mormon Church, that the conspiracy stretched all the way to Saints leader Brigham Young, who was eager to prove his strength to a federal government trying to rein him in. But at the time Lee was offered up as a scapegoat by his other, church-appointed lawyers, who cut a deal with the prosecution to protect Young and others. That left Spicer to fight a losing battle against perjured testimony and a rigged jury. Lee was executed by a firing squad, and Lubet suggests that his fate made Spicer "inclined to look long and hard at evidence, taking seriously his duty to protect the rights of defendants." Fitch guessed this about the judge because Fitch had also spent considerable time among the Utah Mormons, at one point doing legal work for Young. He seems to have felt he could rely on Spicer to give his clients a chance to tell their side of the story. He was right.

An Arizona statute on the books at the time of the Earp hearing allowed a defendant to take the stand and offer testimony without being cross-examined. It was the perfect chance for the defense to present its version of the events uninterrupted, and Fitch seized it, calling Wyatt Earp to the stand. After answering a handful of perfunctory questions about his age (32) and profession (he said he was a "saloon keeper at present. Also have been deputy sheriff and also a detective"), Earp began reading from a written manuscript. The prosecution objected vociferously, but the statute didn't specify whether it was legal for a defendant to read his statement, and Spicer allowed the testimony to go forward.

Indeed, throughout Wyatt's testimony, Spicer gave him wide latitude to tell his story, despite further objections from the prosecution. Wyatt started at the beginning, describing the series of confrontations that led up to the gunfight. Having summed up a year's worth of threats by the Cowboys, he concluded: "I believe I would have been legally and morally justified in shooting any of them on sight, but I did not do so, nor attempt to do so.... I did not intend to fight unless it became necessary in self-defense and in the performance of official duty."

Wyatt's statement bears the mark of Fitch's influence. As Lubet notes, the lawman was smart, but men in his profession didn't typically speak legalese, and Wyatt probably wouldn't have written a phrase like "morally and legally justified" on his own. But more important than the precision of Wyatt's narrative was the care he and Fitch took to justify his actions. "There was no doubt that the Earps killed the three Cowboys, but the question was whether it amounted to a crime," Lubet writes. "Tom Fitch realized, far better than the prosecutors, that whathappened was less important than whyit happened." Lubet argues that in Wyatt's testimony, Fitch gave Spicer an answer the judge could find palatable: Tombstone's citizens and its economic prospects were under attack by the Cowboys. Far from being murderers, the Earps had acted to defend the town from a group of armed and dangerous outlaws.

PERHAPS BECAUSE OF ITS NAME, perhaps because of the imperatives of frontier life, Tombstone had a nonchalant attitude toward death. The Epitaphran a regular column called "Death's Doings." The actual epitaphs in Boot Hill, Tombstone's graveyard, were in the same blithe spirit. One infamous inscription read:
Here lies Lester Moore,
Six slugs from a forty-four,
No less, no more.
The city had not taken the deaths of Billy Clanton and the McLaury brothers lightly, however, as even pro-Earp chroniclers had to admit. Spicer clearly understood the gravity of the case before him, and the mixed public opinion. It could hardly have escaped his notice that nearly the whole town had turned out for the Cowboys' funeral, an event that even the Epitaph called a "saddening sight." Yet after taking scarcely a day to write his opinion, Spicer returned to the courtroom with a decision in favor of the defense.

As Spicer recounted the events leading up to the gunfight, he reprimanded Virgil Earp for having called on Doc Holliday to disarm the Clantons and the McLaurys. Spicer said Virgil acted "incautiously and without due circumspection." Still, it was clear that whatever Virgil had done, the judge had accepted Tom Fitch's explanation of why he had done it. "When we consider the condition of affairs incident to a frontier country; the lawlessness and disregard for human life," Spicer wrote, "I can attach no criminality to his unwise act."

Lubet of course credits Fitch with laying the groundwork for Spicer's decision, while at the same time acknowledging that the prosecution dug its own grave by refusing to consider a lesser charge of manslaughter. Lubet guesses that the prosecution was influenced by William McLaury. The eldest McLaury brother was a Texas lawyer who rode to Tombstone after the deaths of his brothers and joined the prosecution team in the first week of the trial. Letters he wrote during his stay make clear that he wanted vengeance more than justice, and Lubet believes that he may have pressured the other prosecutors into insisting on charging the defendants with a capital offense.

Whatever the rationale, the failure to bring a lesser charge was an egregious error. In Lubet's hands, the evidence presented at trial strongly supports a manslaughter finding. What's more, Lubet offers proof that Spicer himself might have found the Earps and Holliday guilty of that crime. In a nice piece of close reading, he notes that the judge's reprimand of Virgil Earp for having acted "incautiously and without due circumspection" might well have intentionally paraphrased the Arizona manslaughter statute, written to punish killers who acted without "due caution or circumspection."

Intent on a hanging, however, the prosecution had tried to get the Earps by leveling the weight of its case against Holliday, just as Frank McLaury had leveled his pistol at him in the back of the O.K. Corral. ("I have you now," the doomed McLaury is said to have told Holliday. Holliday's response is the stuff of legend: "Blaze away," he replied. "You're a daisy if you do.")

Lubet's efforts notwithstanding, Tom Fitch is probably not the stuff of legend—the next Tombstone movie won't be a courtroom drama. But Lubet does establish that without Fitch there might not have been a Tombstone legend in the first place. The lawyer's cagey work saved the Earps and Holliday from a death sentence. And not just that. As the earliest attempt to cast the gunfight as a parable of order imposed upon lawlessness, Wyatt's testimony might be said to be the ur-text of the Tombstone myth. It would take several decades and a series of articles and books to bring the myth to the masses. But one of the most influential of those texts, Stuart Lake's hagiography Wyatt Earp, Frontier Marshal, relied heavily on Wyatt's testimony in establishing Wyatt as the quintessential Old West lawman. The first author of the Wyatt Earp legend, then, might be said to be Tom Fitch.

John Swansburg is a senior editor at Legal Affairs.


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Источник: https://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/November-December-2004/review_swansburg_novdec04.msp